Maladaptive schemas, behavioral activation-inhibition systems, and experiential avoidance in patients with chronic somatic symptom disorders and healthy people


  • Fatemeh Nourouzi Department of Psychology, School of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz Branch, Bandargaz, Iran
  • Shahrbanoo Ghahari Department of Mental Health, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Mahdi Shamsaee Department of Psychology, School of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz Branch, Bandargaz, Iran
  • Mohadese Norouzi Department of Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran



Body Schema, Behavioral Control, Inhibition


BACKGROUND: Somatic symptom disorders have relation with mental health. Hence, this study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), behavioral activation system/behavioral inhibition system (BAS/BIS), and experiential avoidance in patients with chronic somatic symptom disorders and healthy people.

METHODS: This was a casual-comparative study. Of patients with psychosomatic disorders referring to the Palliative Medicine Center and Educational and Medical Center of Shahid Sayyad Shirazi in Gorgan, Iran, 120 eligible patients were selected through convenience sampling, then were compared with 120 normal individuals (without psychosomatic disorders) who had been matched with patient group in terms of age, sex, education, and marital status. Brain Behavioral System Questionnaire (BAS/BIS Questionnaire), Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) were used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and SPSS software.

RESULTS: Demographic information of patient and healthy groups indicated that in patient group, 36.7% were single and 63.3% were married, 1.7% had elementary education, 10.0% had secondary school education, 45.0% had diploma, and 43.3% had higher education degree. In normal group, 60.0% were single and 40.0% were married, 3.3% had secondary school degree, 51.7% had diploma, and 45.0% had higher education degree. The results indicated a significant difference between EMSs, behavioral systems, and experiential avoidance in patients with somatic symptom disorders and normal people in Iran (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Patients with somatic symptom disorders have more active BAS-BIS, high EMSs, and more experimental avoidance than normal people.


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How to Cite

Nourouzi F, Ghahari S, Shamsaee MM, Norouzi M. Maladaptive schemas, behavioral activation-inhibition systems, and experiential avoidance in patients with chronic somatic symptom disorders and healthy people. Chron Dis J. 2021;9(2):61–67.



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