Comparison of different components of executive functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children with specific learning disorders, and normal children

Asiyeh Khaledi, Hadi Hashemi-Razini, Mohammad Hossein Abdollahi

DOI: 10.22122/cdj.v7i1.373


BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted with the aim of examining and comparing different components of executive functions (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory, planning) of 3 groups of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with specific learning disorder (LD), and normal children.

METHODS: Statistical society of the study included all 7-12 year-old students of Lordegan City, Iran, in the school year of 2015-2016. To carry out this study, 26 normal children were selected by multistage cluster sampling method and 22 children with ADHD and 18 children with specific LD through convenience sampling method. The causal-comparative method was exploited to perform the study. The tools used included clinical interview, Conners questionnaire, the forms filled in by the teachers of children with ADHD, Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), and the Tower of London (TOL), active memory, and Wisconsin cards. The analysis was performed using SPSS software with descriptive and inferential statistics [multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)].

RESULTS: The results showed that, children with ADHD and specific learning disability were lower in 3 areas of performance of working memory, planning, and inhibition performance in comparison to the normal group, however there was no significant difference among groups in terms of flexibility performance.

CONCLUSION: In this study, it has been shown that the problems emerging among the exceptional children studied in this study, namely, children with ADHD, and children with learning disabilities, are rooted in their brain functions.


Executive Functions; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Specific Learning Disorder

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