Prevalence of menopausal symptoms among rural women in Bangladesh
Keywords:Prevalence, Menopause, Bangladesh
BACKGROUND: Menopause is a physiological process in women's life causing a variety of vasomotor, psychological, physical, and sexual symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among rural women in Bangladesh.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st January to 31st December 2018 on 384 postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years and selected by convenience sampling in the rural areas of Faridpur District in Bangladesh. We used the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) for measuring the prevalence of menopausal symptoms. SPSS software was used for data analysis.
RESULTS: The mean age of menopause was 47.13 ± 4.30 years. Out of 384 postmenopausal women, the most common symptoms in the vasomotor domain were ‘sweating’ (98.2%) and ‘hot flushes’ (94.5%). In the psychological domain, the most common symptoms were ‘accomplishing less than I used to’ (99.7%) and ‘experiencing poor memory’ (98.2%). In the physical domain, the most common symptoms were ‘decreases in physical strength’ (100%), ‘feeling lack of energy’ (100%), ‘changes in appearance, texture, or tone of skin’ (100%), ‘decreased stamina’ (99.7%), ‘dry skin’ (99.7%), and ‘feeling tired or worn out’ (97.1%). Out of 60.9% married menopausal women, the most common symptoms in the sexual domain were ‘change in sexual desire’ (58.6%) and ‘avoiding intimacy’ (58.3%).
CONCLUSION: Many of the menopausal symptoms were frequent except ‘increased facial hair’, ‘weight gain’, and ‘willing to be alone’, which were present in 2 (0.5%), 119 (31.0%), and 122 (31.8%) women, respectively.
Nisar N, Sikandar R, Sohoo NA. Menopausal symptoms: Prevalence, severity and correlation with sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. A cross sectional community based survey from rural Sindh Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015; 65(4): 409-13.
AlDughaither A, AlMutairy H, AlAteeq M. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Womens Health. 2015; 7: 645-53.
Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, et al. Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Climacteric. 2001; 4(4): 267-72.
Dennerstein L, Dudley EC, Hopper JL, Guthrie JR, Burger HG. A prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 96(3): 351-8.
Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi M, Taebi M, Sadat Z, Saberi F, Karimian Z. Prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and related factors among women 40-60 years in Kashan, Iran. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2012; 1(2): 88-93.
Sussman M, Trocio J, Best C, Mirkin S, Bushmakin AG, Yood R, et al. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms among mid-life women: Findings from electronic medical records. BMC Womens Health. 2015; 15: 58.
Karma D, Saini S, Singh S, Sehgal DK. Quality of life among post-menopausal women in rural area of Punjab. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research. 2018; 6(1): 32471-7.
Randolph JF, Sowers M, Gold EB, Mohr BA, Luborsky J, Santoro N, et al. Reproductive hormones in the early menopausal transition: relationship to ethnicity, body size, and menopausal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88(4): 1516-22.
Kamal N, Seedhom A. Quality of life among postmenopausal women in rural Minia, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J. 2017; 23(8): 527-33.
Rahman SA, Zainudin SR, Mun VL. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Asia Pac Fam Med. 2010; 9(1): 5.
Asadi M, Jouyandeh Z, Nayebzadeh F. Prevalence of menopause symptoms among Iranian women. J Family Reprod Health. 2012; 6(1): 1-3.
Melby MK, Anderson D, Sievert LL, Obermeyer CM. Methods used in cross-cultural comparisons of vasomotor symptoms and their determinants. Maturitas. 2011; 70(2): 110-9.
Boulet MJ, Oddens BJ, Lehert P, Vemer HM, Visser A. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries. Maturitas. 1994; 19(3): 157-76.
Nisar N, Sohoo NA. Frequency of menopausal symptoms and their impact on the quality of life of women: A hospital based survey. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009; 59(11): 752-6.
Ibrahim ZM, Sayed Ahmed WA, El-Hamid SA. Prevalence of menopausal related symptoms and their impact on quality of life among Egyptian women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 42(2): 161-7.
Al-Olayet A, Al-Qahtani I, Dalal I, Al-Essa F, Al-Saleek R, Al-Moutary L, et al. Severity of menopausal symptoms, and knowledge attitude and practices towards menopause among Saudi women. Sci Res Essays. 2010; 5(24): 4077-9.
Askari F, Basiri Moghadam K, Basiri Moghadam M, Torabi S, Gholamfarkhani S, Mohareri M, et al. Age of natural menopause and compare The incidence of its early complications in menopause transition stages in women from Gonabad city. Horizon Med Sci. 2012; 17(4): 42-8.
Chim H, Tan BH, Ang CC, Chew EM, Chong YS, Saw SM. The prevalence of menopausal symptoms in a community in Singapore. Maturitas. 2002; 41(4): 275-82.
Kakkar V, Kaur D, Chopra K, Kaur A, Kaur IP. Assessment of the variation in menopausal symptoms with age, education and working/non-working status in north-Indian sub population using menopause rating scale (MRS). Maturitas. 2007; 57(3): 306-14.
Chedraui P, Hidalgo L, Chavez D, Morocho N, Alvarado M, Huc A. Menopausal symptoms and associated risk factors among postmenopausal women screened for the metabolic syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007; 275(3): 161-8.
El Shafie K, Al Farsi Y, Al Zadjali N, Al Adawi S, Al Busaidi Z, Al Shafaee M. Menopausal symptoms among healthy, middle-aged Omani women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale. Menopause. 2011; 18(10): 1113-9.
Rostami A, Ghofranipour FA, Ramazanzadeh F, Kazemnejad A. The effect of health education program on quality of women's life in menopause. Daneshvar Med. 2004; 11(49): 19-24.
Delavar MA, Hajiahmadi M. Factors affecting the age in normal menopause and frequency of menopausal symptoms in northern Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2011; 13(3): 192-8.
Lee MS, Kim JH, Park MS, Yang J, Ko YH, Ko SD, et al. Factors influencing the severity of menopause symptoms in Korean post-menopausal women. J Korean Med Sci. 2010; 25(5): 758-65.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Chronic Diseases Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.