Comparison of alpha–theta neurofeedback versus sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial

Samaneh Farnia, Mousa Kiani-Chelmardi, Maryam Mobini, Azin Mehrpour, Samineh Fattahi, Mehran Zarghami, Jamshid Yazdani-Charati, Nadia Abedi-Omali

DOI: 10.22122/cdj.v8i3.523


BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease with widespread musculoskeletal pain. In this study, we used neurofeedback to reduce pain and enhance the quality of life (QOL).

METHODS: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 40 patients referred to Tuba Specialized Clinic and Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari, Iran, between December 2013 and July 2015. Group 1 underwent sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback training and group 2 underwent neurofeedback training for alpha-theta training. The primary outcomes were pain reduction and increasing QOL, which were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Numeric Pain Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale, respectively, within the first day, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks post-randomization.

RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were screened for eligibility and 40 patients completed the trial. In both groups, the differences between FIQ scores before and after the study were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Neurofeedback training could be applied to reduce pain and improve the QOL of patients with FM.


Neurofeedback; Fibromyalgia; Pain

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