Comparing brain-behavioral systems, early maladaptive schemas, and preservative thinking in women with and without pregnancy anxiety in the health center of Ardabil Province, Iran
Keywords:Early Maladaptive Schemas, Behavior, Thinking, Anxiety
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression in women during pregnancy could be associated with unfavorable consequences of pregnancy, such as premature and low-weight newborn birth. Current study was conducted aiming to compare brain-behavioral systems, early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), and preservative thinking in women with and without pregnancy anxiety.
METHODS: The method of this research was causal-comparative. The population included of the whole pregnant women who had been referred to Urban Health Service Centers of Ardabil Province, Iran, in order to receive pregnancy period cares at first quarter of 2017. 30 pregnant women whose pregnancy anxiety had been diagnosed by mental health experts and the physicians of the center trough screening and administering Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale (PrAS) were selected using cluster random sampling. 30 women without anxiety were matched with the women having pregnancy anxiety in terms of age, times of pregnancy, number of children, education level, and economic status. For data collecting, Huizink et al.’s PrAS, Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) of Welburn et al., the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scale of Carver and White, and Ehring et al.’s Preservative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) were used. The obtained data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) using SPSS software.
RESULTS: The results of MANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between brain-behavioral systems, EMSs, and preservative thinking in women with and without pregnancy anxiety (P < 0.010).
CONCLUSION: Since maladaptive schemas, brain-behavioral systems, and preservative thinking are higher in pregnant women with anxiety than pregnant women without anxiety, so counselling, supportive, and training programs are essential for vulnerable mothers.
Lobel M, Cannella DL, Graham JE, DeVincent C, Schneider J, Meyer BA. Pregnancy-specific stress, prenatal health behaviors, and birth outcomes. Health Psychol 2008; 27(5): 604-15.
Zhang D, He H. Personality traits and life satisfaction: A Chinese case study. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal 2010; 38(8): 1119-22.
Sundag J, Ascone L, Lincoln TM. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress. Clin Psychol Psychother 2018; 25(1): 65-75.
Bach B, Lockwood G, Young JE. A new look at the schema therapy model: Organization and role of early maladaptive schemas. Cogn Behav Ther 2018; 47(4): 328-49.
Briggs ES, Price IR. The relationship between adverse childhood experience and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and beliefs: The role of anxiety, depression, and experiential avoidance. J Anxiety Disord 2009; 23(8): 1037-46.
Shahamat F. Redicting general health symptoms (somatization, anxiety, depression) from early maladaptive schemas. Journal of Psychology 2011; 5(20): 103-24. [In Persian].
McNaughton N, Gray JA. Anxiolytic action on the behavioural inhibition system implies multiple types of arousal contribute to anxiety. J Affect Disord 2000; 61(3): 161-76.
Serrano-Ibanez ER, Ramirez-Maestre C, Lopez-Martinez AE, Esteve R, Ruiz-Parraga GT, Jensen MP. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems, and emotional regulation in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Front Psychiatry 2018; 9: 394.
Lyyra P, Parviainen T. Behavioral inhibition underlies the link between interoceptive sensitivity and anxiety-related temperamental traits. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 1026.
Drost J, van der Does W, van Hemert AM, Penninx BW, Spinhoven P. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety: A conceptual replication. Behav Res Ther 2014; 63: 177-83.
Mikaeili N, Daryadel SJ, Samadifard HR, Moradi-Kelarde S, Heidarirad H. Comparing early maladaptive schemas, perseverative thinking, and somatoform dissociation in patients with obsessivecompulsive disorder with normal population. Chron Dis J 2019; 7(2): 66-72.
Spinhoven P, Drost J, van Hemert B, Penninx BW. Common rather than unique aspects of repetitive negative thinking are related to depressive and anxiety disorders and symptoms. J Anxiety Disord 2015; 33: 45-52.
Aghajani S, SAMADIFARD H, Narimani M. The role of cognitive avoidance components and metacognitive belief in the prediction of quality of life in diabetic patients. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology 2017; 6(21): 142-56. [In Persian].
Huizink AC, Mulder EJ, Robles de Medina PG, Visser GH, Buitelaar JK. Is pregnancy anxiety a distinctive syndrome? Early Hum Dev 2004; 79(2): 81-91.
Basharpoor S, Heydarirad H, Daryadel SJ, Heydari F,
Ghamari Givi H, Kishore J. The role of perceived stress and social support among predicting anxiety in pregnant women. J Holist Nurs Midwifery 2017; 27(2): 9-16. [In Persian].
Phillips K, Brockman R, Bailey PE, Kneebone II. Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3): Preliminary validation in older adults. Aging Ment Health 2019; 23(1): 140-7.
Welburn K, Coristine M, Dagg P, Pontefract A, Jordan S. The schema questionnaire-short form: factor analysis and relationship between schemas and symptoms. Cognit Ther Res 2002; 26(4): 519-30.
Yousefi N, Etemadi O, Bahrami F, Ahmadi SA, Fatehi Zadah MA. Comparing early maladaptive schemas among divorced and non-divorced couples as predictors of divorce. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2010; 16(1): 21-33. [In Persian].
Heym N, Ferguson E, Lawrence C. An evaluation of the relationship between Grays revised RST and Eysencks PEN: Distinguishing BIS and FFFS in Carver and Whites BIS/BAS scales. Pers Individ Dif 2008; 45(8): 709-15.
Makvand Hoseyni S, Najafi M, Khaleghi R. Relationship between brain- behavioral systems activity mediated by positive and negative emotions on social anxiety of students. Journal of Neuropsychology 2017; 3(3): 63-80. [In Persian].
Ehring T, Zetsche U, Weidacker K, Wahl K, Schonfeld S, Ehlers A. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): Validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2011; 42(2): 225-32.
Shirmohamadi F, Kakavand A, Sadeghi M, Jafari Jozani R. Repetetive negative thinking mediates the association between perfectionism and social anxiety. Journal of Psychological Studies 2016; 12(2): 107-28.