The impact of perineal massage during pregnancy on perineal laceration during childbirth and postpartum: A randomized clinical trial study

Roonak Shahoei, Lila Hashemi-Nasab, Golbahar Gaderkhani, Farzaneh Zaheri, Faranak Shahoei

DOI: 10.22122/cdj.v4i1.218

Abstract


BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of perineal massage during pregnancy on perineal pain and lacerations.

METHODS: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted at Besat Hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, from June 2014 to July 2015, on 115 women. Subjects in the intervention group practiced a daily 8-minute perineal massage with olive oil, starting from the 34th week of gestation until delivery. A questionnaire, made by researchers, was used to collect data through interviews and observations as well as reading the women’s health files. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. The descriptive results were reported in terms of frequencies, means and standard deviations (SD).

RESULTS: The incidence of episiotomy was 53.33% and 57.33% in interventional and control groups, respectively, reflecting the significant difference (P < 0.050). In the interventional group, the frequency of first and second-degree and urethra tears was 81.82%, 9.09%, and 9.09%, respectively. The frequency of the first and second-degree, urethra and vestibule tears was 72.23%, 11.11%, and 16.66%, respectively, in control group. Comparing the degrees of pain between two groups revealed the significant difference in severity of pain at 3 days, 10 days and 3 months after childbirth (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Antenatal perineal massage has a significant effect on the incidence of intact perineum, episiotomy and postnatal perineal pain.


Keywords


Laceration, Episiotomy; Pregnancy; Pain; Postpartum; Massage

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kalichman L. Perineal massage to prevent perineal trauma in childbirth. Isr Med Assoc J 2008; 10(7): 531-3.

Bick DE, Kettle C, Macdonald S, Thomas PW, Hills RK, Ismail KM. Perineal assessment and repair longitudinal study (PEARLS): Protocol for a matched pair cluster trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2010; 10: 10.

Stamp G, Kruzins G, Crowther C. Perineal massage in labour and prevention of perineal trauma: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2001; 322(7297): 1277-80.

Beckmann MM, Stock OM. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (4): CD005123.

Attarha M. Comparison of the effect of perineal massage with lavender essential oil with just massage on Episiotomy and laceration. Complement Med J Fac Nurs Midwifery 2011; 1(1): 51-9.

Williams A, Herron-Marx S, Knibb R. The prevalence of enduring postnatal perineal morbidity and its relationship to type of birth and birth risk factors. J Clin Nurs 2007; 16(3): 549-61.

Shipman MK, Boniface DR, Tefft ME, McCloghry F. Antenatal perineal massage and subsequent perineal outcomes: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104(7): 787-91.

Thompson JF, Roberts CL, Currie M, Ellwood DA. Prevalence and persistence of health problems after childbirth: Associations with parity and method of birth. Birth 2002; 29(2): 83-94.

Ivan Bagha R, Fardi Azar Z, Kamran Poor SZ, Ghochan Zadeh M. Comparing the effect of acetaminophen-suppository diclofenac and ice on perineal pain after episiotomy cutting epinephrine in patients teaching hospital in Al-Zahra Tabriz. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2006; 13(3): 145-51. [In Persian].

Fardiazar Z, Zahery F, Sadegy Khamene S, Mohammad Alizade S, Kooshavar H. The efficacy of 2% lidocaine gel in healing the episiotomy and relieving its pain during postpartum. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2006; 6(1): 61-6. [In Persian].

Davidson K, Jacoby S, Brown MS. Prenatal perineal massage: Preventing lacerations during delivery. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2000; 29(5): 474-9.

Mei-dan E, Walfisch A, Raz I, Levy A, Hallak M. Perineal massage during pregnancy: A prospective controlled trial. Isr Med Assoc J 2008; 10(7): 499-502.

Gomme C, Sheridan M, Bewley S. Antenatal perineal massage: Part 2. Br J Midwifery 2004; 12(1): 50-4.

Beckmann MM, Stock OM. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (4): CD005123.

Dame J, Neher J, Safranek S, Huber TE. Clinical inquiries. Does antepartum perineal massage reduce intrapartum lacerations? J Fam Pract 2008; 57(7): 480-1.

Aasheim V, Nilsen AB, Lukasse M, Reinar LM. Perineal techniques during the second stage of labour for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (12): CD006672.

Seehusen DA, Raleigh M. Antenatal perineal massage to prevent birth trauma. Am Fam Physician 2014; 89(5): 335-6.

Zare O, Pasha H, Faramarzi M. Effect of perineal massage on the incidence of episiotomy and perineal laceration. Health 2014; 6(10): 14.

Shimada M. A randomized controlled trial on evaluating effectiveness of perineal massage during pregnancy in primiparous women. Journal of Japan Academy of Nursing Science 2005; 25(4): 22-9.

Eogan M, Daly L, O'Herlihy C. The effect of regular antenatal perineal massage on postnatal pain and anal sphincter injury: A prospective observational study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006; 19(4): 225-9.

Macarthur AJ, Macarthur C. Incidence, severity, and determinants of perineal pain after vaginal delivery: A prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191(4): 1199-204.

Labrecque M, Eason E, Marcoux S. Randomized trial of perineal massage during pregnancy: Perineal symptoms three months after delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(1 Pt 1): 76-80.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.